23 Mart 2012 Cuma

Tinmel Mosque, Morocco, English

Tinmel Mosque, Morocco
The Mosque was built near the tomb of Mahdī ibn Tūmart (d.1130), the founder of a new religious doctrine that advocated monotheism and strict moral reforms. This mosque is an archetype of Almohad architecture, and was commissioned by his lieutenant ‘Abd al-Mu’min (reigned 1130–1163), the dynasty’s first king.
The building is reached by an entrance located in the north, in the main axis of the building, and by six lateral doors, two of which lead to the courtyard, and four onto the prayer room. The prayer room follows on from the courtyard, as is often the case in Maghrebian mosques of the Almoravid era. It is laid out in a t-shaped plan: nine naves perpendicular to the qibla wall connect with a wide bay. This layout was typical of North African mosques since the Aghlabid era . The Umayyad al-Aqsā Mosque in Jerusalem is probably one of the first examples of this model, and it was repeated at Sāmarra (Iraq) in the Abbāsid era. The outer naves are wider than the inner ones and extend to form two lateral galleries in the courtyard. The naves and bay contain brick pillars (an oriental material) contained by semi-engaged columns. These pillars were used since the Abbāsid era and were then utilized in Cairo in the Tūlūnid  and Fātimid eras. 
 Tinmel Mosque, Morocco
The building incorporates innovations that indicate a strong influence from the Muslim East, especially from the Fātimid architecture that flourished between the tenth and eleventh centuries in the Maghrib, then in Egypt. This is the case for the projecting porches of the gateways and the bay parallel to the qibla wall with its three domes, one in front of the mihrab, and the other two at each extremity.
Andalusian influence is also evident. This was a consequence of the union of the two regions under the same political authority during the Almoravid and Almohad eras. The influence of the Great Mosque of Córdoba (period of al-Hākam, reigned 961–966) can be seen in the use of multifoil arches and in the mihrab’s masterly treatment. The same Andalusian heritage can be seen in the vicinity of the mihrab in the Great Mosque of Tlemcen in Algeria (1136).
The decorative elements are in carved or moulded stucco. As one approaches the mihrab this is increasingly elaborate (intrados of the arches, and ornamentation of the capitals), as is the case at Córdoba, Tlemcen, and Marrakech (the Kutubīyah Mosque, 1158). The motifs are almost all geometric (interlace, rosettes, and stars). They were studied by C. Ewert, who established similarities with the decorations of the Almohad minaret in the Giralda, in Sevilla (1184–1198). The dome’s muqarnas before the mihrab are some of the earliest examples of Almohad vegetal decorations together with the decorations in the Mosque of Tlemcen. Apart from a small band in stylized kufic script at the base of the domes, epigraphic ornamentation is virtually inexistent. The three stucco muqarnas cupolas of the qibla wall bay sit on four muqarnas squinches. Eight muqarnas in the upper section support an eight-point star dome.. 
This organisation was inspired by an eleventh-century Iraqi model, which can be seen in the mausoleum of the imām Dūr, in Sāmarra (1085). Its use was widespread in the Sunnite regions. A number of Maghrebian mosques use the same model
The quadrangular minaret is in an unusual position: it is just above the mihrab, which is part of it. Its external appearance is solid. Its sober decoration of blind arcades and the absence of stucco decorations lend it great severity, similar to military architecture.
The mosque was used as a model for the Almohad Mosque at Mertola (Portugal), which is now a church.



Hiç yorum yok:

Yorum Gönder